Procedure for dialysis

The Procedure for dialysis - There are two methods of removing wastes from the blood and excess fluid from the body when the kidneys have failed. The first, haemodialysis, may also be used as emergency treatment in some cases of poisoning or drug overdose. It makes use of an artificial kidney (or “kidney machine”) and can be carried out at home. Peritoneal dialysis needs an abdominal incision, which is performed in hospital but may also be done at home.

1. Access to the bloodstream for dialysis is obtained by a shunt (in the short term or in an emergency) or an arteriovenous fistula, in which an artery is joined surgically to a vein.

2. A needle inserted into the shunt or fistula carries blood to the machine. The machine pumps the blood through a filter attached to its side. Once inside the filter, the blood flows on one side of a membrane,
and dialysate fluid flows on the other. Waste products and water pass from the blood, across the membrane, and into the dialysate fluid. The filtered blood returns from the machine to the body via
another needle inserted into the shunt or fistula.

3. The membrane separates the patient’s blood from a special fluid called dialysate. Wastes, toxic molecules, and excess fluid pass across the membrane from the blood into the dialysate.

4. The dialysate is discarded and the purified blood returned to the patient. Each session lasts from two to six hours.


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