The dialysis - A filtering technique used to remove waste products from the blood and excess fluid from the body as a treatment for kidney failure.

Each day, the kidneys normally filter about 1,500 litres of blood. They help to maintain the fluid and electrolyte balance of the body. Important minerals and nutrients, such as potassium, sodium, calcium, amino acids, glucose, and water are reabsorbed into the blood. Urea, excess minerals, toxins, and drugs are excreted in the urine.

Dialysis is used to perform this function in people whose kidneys have been damaged due to acute or chronic kidney failure.Without dialysis, wastes accumulate in the blood and the electrolyte levels become unbalanced; this may be life-threatening. In chronic kidney failure, patients may need to have dialysis several times a week for the rest of their lives or until they can be given a kidney transplant. In acute kidney failure, dialysis is carried out more intensively until the kidneys are working normally.

There are two methods: haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In both procedures, excess water and wastes in the blood pass across a membrane into a solution called a dialysate, which is then discarded.

Haemodialysis filters out wastes by passing blood through an artificial kidney machine. The process needs to be performed three or four times a week, and each session lasts two to six hours. In peritoneal dialysis, the abdominal cavity is filled with dialysate, which is changed regularly, and the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity) acts as a natural filter. The procedure is often carried out overnight or continuously during the day and night.


Both types of dialysis carry the risk of upsetting body chemistry and fluid balance, which can cause complications. In addition, peritoneal dialysis carries a risk of infection in the peritoneum.


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