The cystitis - Inflammation of the lining of the bladder that is usually the result of a bacterial infection.

Cystitis is more common in women than men because the urethra is short, so it is relatively easier for the bacteria that cause the disorder to pass into the bladder. A bladder calculus (stone), a bladder tumour, or a urethral stricture can obstruct urine flow and increase the risk of infection.

In men, cystitis is rare; it usually occurs when an obstruction, such as an enlarged prostate gland (see prostate, enlarged), compresses the urethra. Cystitis in children is often associated with a structural abnormality of the ureters, which allows reflux (backward flow) of urine towards the kidneys.

The use of catheters (see catheterization, urinary) also carries the risk of infection. People with diabetes mellitus are especially susceptible to urinary tract infections because they have higher- than-normal levels of glucose in their urine which encourages the growth of bacteria.

The main symptoms are a frequent urge to pass urine and a burning pain on urinating. The urine may be foul-smelling or may contain blood.There may also be fever and chills, and lower abdominal discomfort. However, in children there are frequently no symptoms relating to the urinary tract, and they may have only generalized symptoms, such as fever and vomiting.

Symptoms of mild cystitis may be relieved by drinking 0.5 litre of fluid every four hours, which helps to flush out the bladder. Any bacterial infection is treated with antibiotic drugs to prevent bacteria from spreading upwards to the kidneys and causing pyelonephritis (infection of the kidneys).


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